Sand and gravel deposits of the Edmonton area can be grouped into preglacial, glacial, and recent alluvial deposits, distinguishable on the basis of time and mode of deposition. Preglacial deposits are extensively distributed along the floors and terraces of buried channels west and northeast of Edmonton, providing most of the good quality concrete aggregate used in this area. Glacial (Pleistocene) deposits are more limited in extent and generally are suitable only for road-base and fill aggregate. Large quantities of recent alluvial gravels are found in terraces along the North Saskatchewan River valley; these are suitable for asphalt, road-base, and fill gravel.
McPherson, R.A. and Kathol, C.P. (1973): Sand and gravel resources of the Edmonton area, Alberta; Alberta Research Council, ARC/AGS Earth Sciences Report 1973-02, 14 p.