Dry Island Buffalo Jump Provincial Park is located along the Red Deer River about 22 km (14 miles) northeast of Trochu. Moderately fine-textured till is the predominant surficial material on the upland portions of the park, while within the valley eroded sediments occur as moderately fine textured colluvium and alluvium of highly variable textures. One area of Aeolian deposits was noted and a considerable portion of the valley consists of exposed sandstone and shale. The climate is continental with warm summers and cold winters, though a hotter, dryer microclimate exists within the valley. The vegetation ranges from native grass to thick shrub cover and is a reflection of the degree of protection from sun and wind and the availability of water at specific sites. Xerophytic and salt tolerant vegetation inhibits dry saline locations.
The soils occurring within the park display a wide range of suitability for recreational development.