Judging from the proportions of the components and the ultimate analyses, the bitumen throughout the Athabasca bituminous sand deposit had a similar origin. Moderate variations in the proportions of the components of the bitumen in bituminous sands, which separate normally in the hot water process, do not have any effect on the separation. There is evidence that some bituminous sand beds at Bitumount contain bitumen whose components are in somewhat different proportions to each other than is the case with the bitumen in other beds in the section. The fine clay present in bitumen appears to be closely associated with the asphaltenes. A method is indicated for avoiding the formation of troublesome emulsions when determining the proportion of saponifable material in the bitumen. Differences in the relative viscosity of the bitumen would appear to be due primarily to variations in the relative proportions of the oily constituents.
Pasternack, D.S. and Clark, K.A. (1951): The components of the bitumen in Athabasca bituminous sand and their significance in the hot water separation process; Research Council of Alberta, RCA/AGS Report 58, 14 p.