Carbon dioxide is a greenhouse gas that is considered to contribute to global climate warming, thus the emission of CO2 and other greenhouse gases should actually be reduced. A general reduction of CO2 emissions into the atmosphere can be achieved by a variety of means which can be broadly classified into: (1) improved/alternate energy uses, (2) CO2 capture and utilization, and (3) CO2 long-term disposal. A very attractive and cost-effective solution is energy conservation, although it may require tough policy measures (Turkenburg, 1992). Another option is the use of renewable energy sources. Until such energy sources are developed and applied on a large scale, fossil energy resources will continue to be the primary energy source for many countries. Improving energy efficiency may lead to a lowering of the rate of CO2 generation. However, it is questionable whether improving on energy use, conservation and alternate sources can solve the CO2 problem quickly enough. While these are probably solutions for the long term, short and medium term solutions have to be found to deal with the problem of increasing CO2 emissions.

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Gunter, W.D., Bachu, S., Perkins, E.H., Underschultz, J.R., Wiwchar, B., Yuan, L.P., Berhane, H. and Cotterill, D.K. (1994): Central Alberta: CO2 disposal into Alberta Basin aquifers - phase II, hydrogeological and mineralogical characterization of Mannville Group strata in the Lake Wabamun area & water-rock reactions due to CO2 injection into the Glauconitic Sandstone aquifer; Alberta Research Council, ARC/AGS Open File Report 1994-17, 222 p.